Sunday, July 5, 2020

New COVID-19 vaccine is safe in humans and produces a rapid immune response

A new vaccine designed against the COVID-19 is said to be effective and is producing a rapid immune response in patients, as published in The Lancet. The trial was performed in 108 patients for a period of 28 days and gave these promising results. But the final results will be available only after about six months, and those results will tell us the entire effectiveness of the vaccine.

The vaccine, which has Ad5-nCoV, is able to elicit an immune response as early as 14 days. This is achieved by virus-specific antibodies and the production of T-cells that makes it one of the leading candidates for the vaccine race. Researchers also caution us that we should not take it for granted that even if the vaccines produce an immune response, we don’t know how it can work against COVID-19. Even though the results are promising, researchers say that it may take a longer time for us to get the vaccine to all the people. As we see now, vaccinations are the only hope for us to protect against the disease, as many drugs are gaining mixed reviews.

Read Also: Apple and Google release long-awaited contact tracing technology

The vaccine study

The study took place in Wuhan, China, where people from age groups of 18-60 participated. The participant is known to be free of the SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of testing. The researchers injected three different doses of vaccine to three groups of people with 36 in number. The patient’s blood we’re regularly tested to check the antibody response. Researchers saw that on the 28th day, the vaccine was well tolerated with fewer adverse reactions. The most common ones include fatigue, fever, muscle pain, and headache. However, one individual’s reactions subsided within 48 hours.

The researchers also saw that there was an immune response within two weeks of vaccination in the form of binding antibodies. They just don’t really attack the virus but bind to them. They also saw some groups had neutralizing antibodies in their blood. But the most fascinating result came after 28 days where there was a four-fold increase in the binding antibodies and smote than half showing neutralizing antibodies against the virus. In addition, the researchers also saw that there was an increase in T-cell response in groups with higher doses of vaccine.

Read Also: COVID-19 drug hydroxychloroquine produces cardiac toxicity, large study shows

The vaccine also had a major setback in persons with preexisting immunity against adenovirus type 5. The culprit behind common cold is present in a renamed form in the vaccine to deliver immunity against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Researchers say that the higher levels of preexisting immunity against the adenovirus had a negative impact on the immune responses. With this limitation, the authors also see that the study group was small, and there was no control group. Owing to this, the researchers speculate that they need a larger group to know the effectiveness of the vaccine. The team is planning to conduct research on 500 adults. Researchers hope this will bring light on the true potential if the vaccine.

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Source: EurekAlert

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