Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the world that humans develop as time passes; more than 5 million cases are presented with skin cancer in the US each year. About 90% of nonmelanoma skin cancers are associated with UV light. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma are some of the typical cancer which worry the humans the most. Scientists are trying to develop many methods to tackle the cancer cells, yet on a failing side.
Ortiz-Rodriguez, a Ph.D. researcher at Case Western Reserve University, has said that he had been through the beaches to do surfing, swimming without any sun blockers. Later, he experimented in the laboratory to analyze the change in the DNA. He was amazed to notice the pre-cancerous lesions in the DNA within three picoseconds after exposure to UV light. The ultraviolet rays can cause such a type of effect in a trillionth of a second. Surprising right!
He and Carlos Crespo decided to know how the cancerous develops within a short duration. They observed the fast forming mutation called ‘DNA (6-4) photo adducts’. The light induces some reaction in the cell DNA and finally will result in skin cancer. The number 6-4 refers to the location of the DNA segments. They hinted that the thymine-thymine cyclobutane photo adduct formed in less than one picosecond.
Mutations are the one which develops at every second on exposure to the sunlight. But all of the mutations are tackled efficiently by the enzymes inside the cell. They could repair more than 99% of them. If the enzymes don’t work, these can buildup in one’s cell resulting in cancer in the coming years.
By knowing how cancer starts up, we can use different methods and deal it with some therapeutic application. Further gaining knowledge on this, scientists can design some sun blockers that would prevent the formation of 6-4 photo adduct, thereby stops the progression to cancer.
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Source: Medical Xpress