Macrophages are the most complex part of the immune system. It helps to detect foreign bodies and able to eliminate it from the system effectively. Also, it stimulates inflammation by promoting pro-inflammatory cytokines and gives a signal to the body. Despite the inflammation, it has got an enormous ability to secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines and also encourages healing.
Scientists from the Cincinnati Children’s explored the activity of BCAP protein in mice and determined the significance of it. Perhaps it aimed to repair the damaged intestinal cell provoked by inflammation. Macrophages use Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) for detecting the viral and bacterial protein to enhance the inflammation. This TLR possesses a cytoplasmic domain, which in turn gives signals to many pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition to it, it activates the BCAP protein, that is critical to link TLRs to PI3 Kinase activation. This kinase regulates several outcomes of cellular behavior, such as cell proliferation and cell survival. Also, it plays an important role in the regulation of macrophage behavior and function and is useful for healing and tissue repair.
The BCAP protein downregulates TLR activation and has inhibited proteins like GSK3b and FGOXO1. These two triggers the inflammatory response by the cell. Eventually, the study included that the macrophage uses BCAP to transition into a remodeling state by the molecular process called histone lactylation.
By reducing the inflammation, we could manage the severity of the conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis. In the future, targeted drugs to activate BCAP protein might give hope to lessen the impact created by such conditions.
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Source: Medical Xpress